Fuel car exhaust is a health killer
According to a recent study in the United States, about 385000 people worldwide died prematurely in 2015 from air pollution caused by vehicle emissions, of which diesel vehicles were the number one killer. The medical burden of traffic pollution reached $1 trillion in 2015, the researchers said. 22000 people in the United States have died from emissions from transportation equipment, 43 percent of which are related to diesel vehicles. The number of premature deaths from car exhaust was 74000 in India, 13000 in Germany, 7800 in Italy, 6400 in France and 114000 in China. Thus it can be seen how important it is to improve the environment, prolong human life and put an end to the premature death of some people caused by car exhaust.
Electric vehicles will gradually replace fossil fuel vehicles
The best way to reduce or eliminate greenhouse gas CO2 emissions is to phase out fuel vehicles and switch to new energy vehicles, or electric vehicles. A number of cities and countries have announced imminent bans on the sale of new gasoline and diesel cars, with deadlines set by 2030 in many places, such as Berlin, Paris and London. Even the armed forces of some countries are prepared to phase out fuel vehicles.
According to foreign reports, the British Army Chief of staff said at a meeting in September this year, the Army may phase out gasoline and diesel vehicles, in order to attract environmentalists to enlist; The British Army Admiral said: "our current equipment program may be the last to rely on fossil fuels." "the elimination of fuel vehicles will bring considerable operational benefits to the British army, such as reducing our logistical drag and putting the army on the right side on environmental issues, especially in the eyes of the next generation of recruits," he said. Because they are increasingly making career decisions based on the credibility of their employers on environmental issues. "
The whole world is struggling to develop electric cars
At present, the world is struggling to develop new energy / electric vehicles, which will have a far-reaching impact on the change of the world energy pattern. China sold more than 500000 electric vehicles in 2016 and could produce 2.6 million in 2020, accounting for about 50 per cent of the world's total. China no longer approves new fuel car projects in principle, with a few exceptions, especially foreign-funded enterprises, which can produce more than 900000 vehicles in the European Union. Volkswagen, Dam and Honda all unveiled their new versions of electric cars at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 2019 as manufacturers increased production of electric cars to avoid tough fines for new emission regulations. According to the European Transport and Environmental Organization, the European Union sold about 200000 electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles in the first half of 2019. Under the new rules, carmakers must reduce the average CO2 emissions of all their models below 95g/km, or face fines of 95 euros per excess 1g/km multiplied by the company's sales of the model in the European Union.
There are now 40 or 50 kinds of electric and hybrid vehicles on the market in the world, especially in China. Famous brands of foreign electric cars:
Porsche's new electric car
Porsche (Porsche), a German company, has also translated it as Polsher, one of the leading companies in the development of electric vehicles. Four years after the Mission E concept car was unveiled at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 2015, the company announced on September 4 that it would launch a new version of the so-called Taycan electric car, which can be delivered in December. This is an impressive electric car made by the company's Chaufenhausen Automobile Factory in Germany, which can withstand 26 consecutive accelerations from 0 to 96km/h in a short period of time. You can run the Nurburgring in 7 minutes and 42 seconds without overburdening the lithium battery pack.
The system voltage of Taycan (Taikang) electric vehicle is 800V, while the voltage of almost all other electric vehicles in the world is 400V. One of the benefits of high voltage is that it takes less time to charge-it can currently charge as much as 270 kW, but Porsche believes it should reach 400 kW to 500 kW; in addition, because the wires are thinner, the quality is reduced, and the package is improved.
The battery pack of the Taikang electric car is in the conventional position between the front and rear axles of the car. The battery pack has a total power of 93.4 kH, with 396 64.6A.h Li-ion soft package batteries with a nominal voltage of 723V and a maximum output power of 620kW. The battery pack, with a total mass of 620 kg, is placed on a single-layer tray, making it easy to assemble and maintain. The battery has its own cryogenic liquid cooling circuit, as well as cooling the car's DC converter and booster.
Tesla (Tesla) Series Electric vehicles
At the World Conference on artificial Intelligence, which opened on August 29 this year, E Musk, chief executive of Tesla Automobile Company, said that about 50 percent of the world's electric cars are made in China. He is very happy to build a super factory in Shanghai.
The electric vehicle manufacturing plant built by Tesla Automobile Company on the outskirts of Shanghai, which can be put into production in December 2019, is the first of its kind built by foreign investors in China, and will mass-produce the lower-priced small electric car Model 3. It can also plan to produce a small multi-purpose sports car (SUV) Model Y, by 2020, which sells for only half the price of the advanced SUV Model X, shouldering the important task of opening up China's electric car market. Tesla's current sales momentum in China is good, selling 21000 electric vehicles in the first half of 2019, more than doubling from the same period last year, and more and more Chinese consumers are beginning to be interested in Tesla's products. Under the background of the intensification of Sino-US trade friction, it is of great significance for Tesla Automobile Company of the United States to build the first foreign-funded enterprise in China, showing China's open attitude in the automobile field. On the other hand, it is also preparing for more fierce competition in the future through the reorganization of state-owned enterprises. The Chinese government will lift restrictions on foreign companies in the automotive sector in 2022 and take the lead in new energy vehicle industries such as electric vehicles in 2018. BMW has also reached an agreement with its Chinese partners to increase the proportion of joint ventures in China to 7.5%.
In addition, the Future K50 is China's first pure electric supercar, many of which aluminum profiles and parts are provided by Yuefeng Aluminum Group. Future Motor Company is building a K50 sports car factory in the United States and putting it into production in 2020. The Commodity Research Institute in London predicts that the world's aluminum use for electric and hybrid vehicles will be 10 times that of 2018 to 10 million tons by 2030.
Other foreign car companies are also strengthening their operations in China through mergers and other means, with more than 30 new energy models expected to be launched in 2020 and local production of 40 models in 2025. Sales of electric vehicles by foreign companies are also rising: Toyota Motor Company of Japan increased by 9000 units in the first half of 2019 compared with the same period last year, began selling plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in China from the spring of 2019, and will launch mass-produced electric vehicles in 2020. There are also plans to launch more than 10 new energy vehicles by 2025.
GFG STYLE Kangroo electric super SUV
At the 89th Motor Show (GMS), held in Geneva, Switzerland, on March 7, 2019, the electric super SUV (electric-hyper-SUV) car GFC STYLE Kangaroo attracted much attention. It has the energy-saving effect of electric cars, the performance of racing cars, and the ability to run on uneven roads. It can be accelerated from 0 to 100km in 3.5s time, with a maximum speed of 250km, the structural skeleton is made of aluminum alloy profile, the body is made of carbon fiber reinforced composite, the wheel distance is 558.8mm, and the car can only ride two people. The hydraulic suspension system can be lifted and lowered, and the height above the ground can be raised from 139.7mm to 259mm.
Chinese car companies are caught in a bitter battle before and after being attacked.
China accounts for more than 50% of the world's production and sales of new energy vehicles. According to rough surveys and estimates, there are more than 80 enterprises producing new energy vehicles, of which nearly 60 are emerging electric vehicle manufacturing companies. They are having a hard time, and there are no more than three reasons for their struggle: foreign-funded enterprises have landed on the mainland one after another, striving to step up their offensive and seize the market, their technology is mature, and they can produce their products in a very short period of time and occupy a favorable market position. It is hard for Chinese companies to win. SAIC, which ranks third in the new energy vehicle market, saw sales growth of just 7 per cent in the first half of 2019, while BAIC, which ranked second, did not grow by more than 15 per cent. The downturn in sales has led to a shortage of funds, and between January and mid-June 2019, financing for China's electric car industry totaled about $780 million, down nearly 90 per cent from a year earlier, according to statistics released by authorities. Shanghai Weilai, one of the emerging carmakers, has had to recall about 4800 vehicles and cut 1000 jobs, or 10 per cent of its workforce, after several spontaneous combustion accidents. Baidu and other funded Weimar Motor Company also because of the driving process suddenly out of control and other quality problems, continue to be complained by customers, trouble. The second reason is the phased downward adjustment of subsidies, which will cease completely in early 2020. Third, the government has adjusted its policy, and China implemented a new policy in 2018, requiring automakers to include a certain proportion of new energy vehicles in their new cars. Although companies that fail to meet their targets are allowed to buy "points" from those that exceed their targets, many start-ups cannot count on selling "points" to increase revenue because of delays in the implementation of the new policy until 2019. For these reasons, new energy vehicle manufacturing companies fall into the trap of oversupply, enterprises with poor operating capacity are likely to be eliminated, and the real strength of enterprises will become stronger and stronger, forming a climate.
Cars of the future
Since the development of cars in the future can be seen at the Frankfurt Auto Show in Frankfurt, Germany, from September 12 to 22, 2019, electric and digital are the future of automobiles, and we can also think that they are driven by electric motors. Fully automatic driverless, as long as you enter the destination in digital form, you will take the shortest route to arrive accurately and safely at the most appropriate speed. If there are any changes in the way, as long as you enter instructions, you will follow the instructions. The electricity is supplied by the battery, and the car body is a part of the battery. If you charge it once, you can drive for more than half a year. The charging is very convenient. The lamp pole on the road is the charging post. Even the road has the charging function. While driving, charging at the same time. After 2023, the cost of using electric vehicles will be lower than the cost of owning gasoline-powered cars; In order to save electricity, electric vehicles should be as light as possible under the conditions of ensuring safety and performance in accordance with all standards and specifications.
A group of carmakers, including Uber, Tesla and Google's New way of Travel, are developing the technology. Uber and the New way of Travel company have begun to serve selected passengers, although as an additional security measure, there is still one person sitting in the driver's seat. A number of other companies also plan to bring commercial self-driving cars to market within the next five years.
Aluminum and composite materials boost driverless cars on the road
Nowadays, the main structure of electric vehicles is made of all aluminum, or more than 80% of the materials used are aluminum, and the remaining less than 20% are composite materials, of course, steel and other materials are also indispensable. The so-called all-aluminum making is the use of aluminum in all the parts that can be made of aluminum alloy under the conditions of existing technology, safety and comfort. At present, aluminum is the best cost-effective material for making electric vehicles, and of course there are composite materials, but at present, the price of composite materials is high, and the problem of waste recycling and recycling has not been completely solved, which is not conducive to the recycling of materials. Therefore, in the future automotive materials, aluminum will undoubtedly play a leading role before 2030. From 2031 to 2035, aluminum and composite materials are equally divided, and composite materials are likely to become the protagonists after 2035.
Shanghai will be the first to let driverless cars run all over the street
Shanghai will be the first city in China to issue licences to allow self-driving cars to transport goods and passengers on the streets of the city, according to a report on the Financial Times website on September 17, 2019. China's Shanghai Automobile Manufacturing Company, Germany's BMW Motor Company and Internet ride-hailing company DiDi were the first companies to be awarded "demonstration application" licences for intelligent network vehicles, Xinhua reported.
In recent years, some carmakers around the world have invested heavily in the development of autopilot technology, which looks set to lead the global auto transport industry. Six or seven cities in the United States, such as Phoenix, San Francisco, Detroit, Pittsburgh and Palo Alto, have issued licences.
Permanent magnet motor will be eliminated
Today's electric vehicles use permanent magnet motors, one of its main shortcomings is that there is a reverse EMF, hindering the current in the conductor, resulting in the car can not reach a high speed, if you want to speed up, you must reduce the magnetic field to reduce the back EMF, but this requires electricity. Results the efficiency of the motor decreased and the time used for the battery was shortened. The second major disadvantage is that the permanent magnet will be demagnetized due to the heating of the motor, so a strong cooling system is needed. When the electric car starts to slow down suddenly, it means that the magnet is overheated and cannot operate properly. The test results show that. In 2018, Russia invented a new motor for electric vehicles, which still maintains good performance at 150 ℃, while the current permanent magnet motor stops running at 100 ℃. Its advantages are as follows: the motor does not need a permanent magnet but a copper coil to produce a running magnetic field; the endurance of the car is increased by 15%; it will not stop suddenly because of overheating, and it does not need a complex and expensive cooling system. The price is low, only 1 / 3 / 4 of the traditional permanent magnet motor, the price of the new motor is about 8600 yuan / unit, while the price of the traditional permanent magnet motor is about 32260 yuan / unit. The new type of motor in Russia was invented by the Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering, Bowman University of Technology in Moscow.
The body will be part of the battery.
In today's electric cars, the battery tray is the largest and heaviest structure, accounting for about 1. 5 to 1. 4 of the total mass of the car, if there is no separate battery components, it would be a lot easier. Scientists at the Charmers Institute of Technology in Sweden really come up with the idea that it is possible to make the car body part of the battery. In this way, the body is not only a load-bearing part, but also an important part of the battery, which can greatly reduce the net weight of the car, which is a big leap forward, up to 50% of the weight loss.
Flying cars and "flying" on the water are coming
Over the next few years, technological advances may be enough to move some of the daily traffic to the sky or the river. Now some companies in the United States, such as Tesla Motor Company, are building a so-called "urban air traffic (UAM)," in which vehicles can quickly and safely transport passengers from the air to their destinations. The flying electric car is a taxi on the ground and an aircraft to carry passengers in the air. It is said that more than 100 alternative aircraft that can provide people with traditional means of transportation are being developed in the United States.
Since August 2019, Paris has been testing a "flying" water rental electric vehicle called the Sea Bubble (Sea Bubbles), which will be officially operational in Paris in the spring of 2020 and is a silver-and-white boat on the water. On the road is an electric taxi, equipped with driverless software, can drive automatically. "Sea Bubble" can accommodate drivers and four passengers, driving on the water as if it were "floating" above the water, with a maximum speed of 30 km, no noise, no pollution. It is said that such "offshore bubble" transport systems will also be built in places such as Geneva and Rotterdam.
What does the appearance and interior look like?
Whether on the outside or on the interior, the driverless electric car of the future will be different from the car that runs on the road today. The first big difference between today's cars and 2030 is their names, and the most recognized car brands in the future may be Tesla, Apple, Dyson and Google. How do they look different? on the outside, the front grille for entering the system and cooling the engine is gone, cameras and sensors replace the rearview mirrors, and the windows can be bigger. So that passengers sitting in the original cab can feast their eyes, enjoy the scenery outside the car, or design small windows to protect privacy. Mercedes' Vision URBANETIC concept car embodies these morphologies. It is a modular vehicle that can easily change the body to meet the different needs of transporting goods and people.
The interior of the car changes as you like, and some cars can customize color, light, privacy elements and layout with one click. Volvo's newly launched 360C concept car has a variety of interior spaces that can be used as living rooms, offices and even bedrooms. The sunshade is no longer necessary because the glass is intelligent and can adjust the amount of light in the car with one click. The door of the Mercedes-Benz F015 concept car is equipped with a display screen, which is both a window and an entertainment system. Some cars can put images of the computer on the windshield or other suitable display areas. The driver can communicate with the car by voice or gesture instructions. It is not a myth but a reality that there will be some early version of the brain-computer interface in advanced cars that links brain activity to commands to manipulate cars or entertain passengers.
We can expect electric vehicles to be at least a viable option for drivers in 2030. Pure electric cars account for only 2% of the world market in 2018, but don't worry, their prices will be lower than fuel vehicles around 2025, and their market share is sure to rise sharply. Some countries and cities are on the verge of banning the sale of new fuel-fueled vehicles, but in most places the deadline is by 2030. But old-fashioned fuel cars can still be on the road, so gas stations will still exist when the time comes. However, carmakers have paid more and more attention to the use of future non-fossil fuel vehicles.
The great development of electric vehicles must be backed by the great development of power batteries. First of all, it should be high-energy, from the current 200Wh/kg and 300Wh/kg to 500Wh/kg, 800Wh/kg, or even larger; The second is safety, the electrolyte from liquid, gel to all-solid development; the shorter the charging time, the better, from the current dozens of minutes to a few minutes. It seems that the realization of these goals is not far away, and a bright future is just around the corner.
Aluminum boosts electric cars. Run.
Although it can not be said that without aluminum, there would be no electric vehicles, but aluminum has indeed played a great catalytic and catalytic role in the emergence and development of electric vehicles. Electric vehicles have electricity when they run. Where does electricity come from? The lithium-ion batteries supplied by livestock batteries are mainly made of aluminum alloy, the pallets for placing batteries are made of aluminum alloy, the frame and covering parts of the car body are made of aluminum alloy, and the wheels are die-cast or forged with aluminum alloy. Electric cars are covered in aluminum, without which it would not run so briskly, nor would it run so cheaply.
There are four aluminum alloy wheels for electric vehicles. The wheels of household and public vehicles are cast at low pressure. ZLXXX casting aluminum alloy is widely used in casting aluminum alloy wheels. China is a big producer of casting aluminum alloy wheels, accounting for more than 60% of the world's total output. Wheel is an important security part, which has high safety requirements. Aluminum wheel has the advantages of light weight, good heat dissipation and high dimensional accuracy. High dimensional accuracy is very beneficial to reduce longitudinal and transverse vibration. The aluminum wheels of large buses, sports cars, limousines and some special cars are forged with 6-series alloy.
The battery system referred to in this paper does not contain the battery itself, which refers to three major parts: battery bag, battery package frame and water-cooled plate. The three pieces manufactured by Yuefeng Group Co., Ltd. are all made of extruded aluminum, and the steel battery bag frame has a mass of 110 kg and 140 kg. On the other hand, the aluminum alloy frame is only 40 kg and 50 kg, and the battery package parts are composed of frame beam, longitudinal beam, bracket, positioning pin and so on. Jiangsu Yuefeng New Energy Auto parts Co., Ltd. is the leader in the production of battery lower box tray.
All passenger car panels are roughly the same, from front and rear covers, roofs, left and right plates and other sheet metal components, all aluminum plates are also basically the same, commonly known as automobile body sheet (ABS,Auto-Body-Sheet), are rolled with 6 series alloy. However, it should be pointed out that at present, whether ABS or other civil aluminum plates are developing in the direction of low carbon, that is, green, in other words, in the alloy smelting ingredients, the more the content of old waste, the less the carbon content of the material. Norberis Aluminium and Hydro Aluminium are the leaders in this field. The old waste content of AdvanzTM alloy sheet produced by Norberis Aluminium Company has exceeded 85%. In 2018, more than 180 automobile manufacturers around the world have used this series of alloy plates to make automotive sheet metal parts, which has not only achieved good results in the light weight of automobiles. Moreover, the automobile manufacturing enterprises not only improve the automobile performance, but also reduce the material cost.
Norway Hydro Aluminium has successfully developed CIRCAL75R and REDUXA alloy series, their waste aluminum content is more than 75%, and the largest carbon footprint is 4.0kg CO2/kg aluminum.
The body frame of the all-aluminum car is all-aluminum and is made of extruded aluminum profiles. The skeleton connection now uses the welding method, also may use the bonding technology and so on, does not have the special place to the electric vehicle.