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Discussion on Curtain Wall Technology in Green Building

November 26, 2019

Abstract: the important factor affecting the energy saving design of curtain wall is climate, and different design strategies and technical measures should be adopted according to different climatic conditions, such as dry heat, humid heat, warmth or cold.

Characteristics and requirements of Green Curtain Wall.

Most of the energy consumption in buildings is used for lighting, ventilation, heating and cooling to create an artificial indoor climate. Curtain wall is the skin of building, so green curtain wall should have the functions of natural lighting, effective ventilation, noise shielding, energy saving, pollution prevention and so on.

1. Curtain Wall and Natural Lighting.

Natural lighting is to introduce sunlight into the interior of the building and distribute it in a certain way to provide better lighting than artificial light sources. Natural lighting can change the intensity, color and vision of light to form a healthier and more exciting working environment than artificial lighting systems. Statistics show that the energy consumption of lighting in buildings accounts for 40%-50% of the total energy consumption, and the resulting waste heat accounts for 3%-5% of the total energy consumption. Therefore, the reasonable design and effective use of natural lighting can significantly reduce the energy consumption of lighting in the building, but also reduce the power demand and the pollution and by-products caused by power generation, which is consistent with the purpose of the green building. Natural light can meet the visual requirements of human beings, which is not only the requirement of modern buildings for the lighting performance of curtain wall, but also one of the ways to save energy in green buildings.

2. Curtain Wall and Natural ventilation.

Indoor air quality is the result of the interaction of many complex factors, and ventilation can provide users with enough fresh air and eliminate microbial pollution sources, which is an important way to improve indoor air quality. According to the different technologies used in ventilation, it can be divided into mechanical (auxiliary) ventilation and natural ventilation. As a peripheral protection system, curtain wall in mechanical (auxiliary) ventilation design should consider the size of fresh air must meet the requirements of fresh air volume; must be located far from the source of pollution. Natural ventilation does not consume non-renewable energy, which is a common technical measure in green buildings.

3. Curtain Wall and Building Energy Saving.

Climate is an important factor affecting the energy-saving design of curtain wall. different design strategies and technical measures should be adopted according to different climatic conditions, such as dry-hot, humid-hot, warm or cold. The usual method is to select appropriate materials and reasonable construction measures to improve the energy saving efficiency of curtain wall; more actively, it is to collect and utilize the natural environmental energy of buildings such as wind and solar energy, so as to save the consumption of non-renewable energy.

4. Curtain Wall and Light pollution.

The so-called light pollution of curtain walls means that due to the reflective properties of glass, curtain walls reflect sunlight and heat, as well as light at night, onto surrounding buildings or roads, resulting in a rise in local temperature of these buildings in summer or excessive lighting of windows at night. It affects people's normal living life, or causes visual interference to pedestrians and drivers on the road. This problem has made people very disgusted with the glass curtain wall, which is also contrary to the concept of green curtain wall, which is very different from the green building advocated. With the continuous development of curtain wall materials and construction technology, we can solve the light pollution caused by the reflection of glass curtain wall from the following aspects.

Several common green curtain walls.

Green energy-saving curtain wall is a kind of curtain wall which has no pollution (or very low pollution) and has the function of environmental protection and energy saving. This is the inevitable trend of the development of curtain wall in the future. At present, there are three types of green energy-saving curtain wall: photoelectric curtain wall, double-layer dynamic energy-saving curtain wall and ecological curtain wall.

1. Photoelectric curtain wall.

Photoelectric curtain wall is a new type of building curtain wall which integrates power generation, sound insulation, heat insulation, safety and decoration functions. it uses photovoltaic and photovoltaic panel technology to convert sunlight into electric energy, and its key technology is solar photovoltaic technology. Photocell is a highly sustainable technology with little maintenance, long life and no pollution in the process of photoelectric conversion. Photoelectric plate is a kind of diaphragm photocell, which looks like colored glass. They use part of the incoming sunlight to generate electricity, while allowing part of the sunlight to pass through and provide lighting. The photovoltaic board produces direct current, which is easy to store in the battery, and then uses the transformer device to convert the direct current into alternating current which can be used for construction equipment. Photoelectric panels are mainly designed as sloping roofs and shading roofs, so that solar energy can be collected and utilized effectively. It can also be used as a sunshade for lighting parts, and can also play the role of shading and collecting solar energy.

Photoelectric curtain wall is a new type of functional building curtain wall, which combines solar photovoltaic technology and curtain wall technology. It uses solar power generation technology to convert sunlight, which was previously shielded as a harmful factor, into electricity that can be used by people. The other great significance of photoelectric curtain wall is that it integrates solar power generation technology into building curtain wall products, does not occupy special land, and solar photovoltaic panels can also replace traditional curtain wall materials such as glass without repeated investment.

2. Double layer dynamic energy saving curtain wall.

Double-layer dynamic energy-saving curtain wall is a curtain wall composed of double-layer structure, which is composed of outer curtain wall, inner curtain wall, sunshade curtain wall, air inlet curtain wall and air outlet device. Generally speaking, the inner layer has doors and windows that can be opened. Under the shelter of the outer curtain wall, no matter how bad the outdoor environment is, the normal opening of the inner doors and windows can be ensured. The entrance and exit of the outer curtain wall and the opening of the inner doors and windows can be controlled, and the thermal passage between the inner and outer layers can be controlled. Solar energy can be used to produce chimney effect or Greenhouse Effect, so as to not only ensure the necessary ventilation, ventilation, but also save energy. Therefore, double-layer dynamic energy-saving curtain wall is also known as thermal channel curtain wall, which can be divided into two systems: natural ventilation and forced ventilation according to the principle of ventilation.

The double-layer dynamic curtain wall is equipped with electric flat inner inverted windows, parallel outer windows, electric sunshade blinds and electric vents in the curtain wall. The top lighting roof is in the form of steel structure, and the lighting roof is divided into two layers, the upper layer is electric sunshade louver, the lower layer is hidden frame glass curtain wall with electric sliding window, and the proportion of daylighting curtain wall to the whole curtain wall area is large, so it is easy to obtain sufficient light. Its technical properties include:

A) using the hot pressing principle and chimney effect, let the fresh air into the room, discharge the indoor dirty air to the outside, and can effectively prevent dust from entering the room. It has the effect of green environmental protection;

B) its cold treatment in winter and heat treatment in summer are very reasonable, and it has excellent heat preservation in winter and heat insulation in summer, so it has typical dynamic energy saving;

C) reasonable lighting function, according to the needs of users, adjust the change of light, change the indoor environment;

D) excellent sound insulation and noise reduction function to create a quiet working and living environment for users;

E) High technical content, special structure and good visual aesthetic feeling.

3. Ecological curtain wall.

Ecological curtain wall develops with the development of architectural ecology. The so-called ecological architecture refers to the building which can change the architectural ecology and architectural color according to the function or requirement of the building. According to the function or requirement of use, the building curtain wall which can change ecology and color is called ecological curtain wall. Ecological curtain wall is a kind of ecological architecture, which takes sustainable development as the strategy and the high and new technology used as the forerunner. Taking the bioclimatic buffer layer as the suitable point, saving resources and reducing pollution, it is a healthy and comfortable peripheral protection structure of ecological buildings.

The ecological curtain wall can establish a buffer city between the building and the surrounding ecological environment, which can not only prevent the indoor effects of various extreme climates to a certain extent, but also strengthen the effects of various microscopic climate adjustments. And then meet the various comfortable requirements of people, and be able to achieve the goal of appropriate energy saving. The construction of ecological curtain wall is beyond the scope of conventional architecture and architectural engineering. It is a system engineering that requires architects, structural engineers and curtain wall engineers to be familiar with the principles of mechanical transmission. Knowledge of machining, assembly and related scientific disciplines such as physics, chemistry and automatic control requires the coordination of multiple disciplines and the cooperation of all majors.

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