Abstract: judging from the current characteristics of the automobile industry, relying solely on the optimization of design can not meet the requirements of low consumption and emission reduction in environmental protection, so from the development trend of the industry, the lightweight of automobile body has become the only way for future development.
Automobile lightweight began in developed countries, first led by traditional automobile giants, and has produced a certain scale after development. At present, North American automotive lightweight materials are the largest market in the world. The region is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of about 5.6%, reaching $36.23 billion by 2021. Europe is the second largest market in the world. In the future, the lightweight materials market in the Asia-Pacific region will be the fastest growing region in the industry. In 2015, the region accounted for 50% of the world's production. The market for lightweight materials in the Asia-Pacific region is growing with the increasing demand for passenger cars and light vehicles.
1. What is the lightweight of cars?
The lightweight of the automobile is to reduce the preparation quality of the vehicle as much as possible under the premise of ensuring the strength and safety performance of the vehicle, so as to improve the power performance of the vehicle, reduce fuel consumption and reduce exhaust pollution. Experiments have shown that if the quality of the car is reduced by half, fuel consumption will be reduced by nearly half. Due to the needs of environmental protection and energy saving, the lightweight of cars has become the trend of automobile development in the world.
2. Why should we make efforts in the direction of lightweight?
Experiments show that if the vehicle weight is reduced by 10%, the fuel efficiency can be increased by 6%, the fuel consumption per 100 km can be reduced by 0.3%, and the fuel consumption can be reduced by 0.7% if the vehicle weight is reduced by 10%. At present, due to the needs of environmental protection and energy saving, the lightweight of cars has become the trend of automobile development in the world.
Germany is currently the country with the highest proportion of lightweight materials for automobiles, followed by the United States and Japan. The German automobile industry is very developed, gathering several of the best production enterprises in the world in the field of new materials industry and machinery manufacturing, which has the unique advantage of promoting the lightweight of automobiles; secondly, there are many luxury brand models in the United States, and electric vehicles are developing rapidly; Japan is the first in the world in terms of carbon fiber, represented by Toray, which is far ahead in the world. China's lightweight started relatively late, and its technology and application lagged behind developed countries such as Germany, the United States and Japan. However, with the development of new energy vehicles, the lightweight of materials is being accelerated.
China's automobile lightweight has started for less than a decade, and it is showing the trend of catching up with and surpassing the developed countries with the help of the rise of new energy vehicles. Automobile lightweight has changed from the 1.0 era of decentralization, high-end and singleness to the 2.0 era of intensification, popularization and diversification. The development of lightweight is driven by multiple needs such as intelligent network connection, energy saving and emission reduction, performance improvement, and so on. Through in-depth cooperation between upstream and downstream of the whole industry, lightweight application models are made more popular, and the market segment of new energy vehicles is expected to take the lead in making breakthroughs in the fields of lightweight material application, manufacturing process, structure optimization, and parts research and development.
China has a broad market for lightweight materials. On the one hand, compared with foreign developed countries, China's lightweight technology starts late, and the average vehicle quality is larger. Taking the proportion of foreign lightweight materials as the benchmark, China still has a lot of room for development; on the other hand, benefiting from the policy drive, the rapid development of China's new energy vehicle industry will drive the demand for lightweight and urge automobile companies to move forward in the direction of lightweight.
It is estimated that the market size of automotive lightweight materials in China will approach 500 billion yuan in the next three years, of which 35 billion yuan will be in the field of new energy vehicles alone. With the continuous strengthening of China's environmental protection policy, the fuel emission standards of the automobile industry are becoming more and more stringent. Related studies show that there is a certain relationship between body weight and emissions. For every 10% reduction in fuel vehicle mass, fuel consumption will be reduced by 8%, emissions will be reduced by 4%, and carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced by 5g/k for every 100 kg reduction in vehicle mass. According to the regulations of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China's automobile carbon dioxide emission standard will be reduced from 155g/km in 2015 to 112g 5.0L/km in 2020, while the fuel consumption of domestic passenger car enterprises will be reduced from 6.9L/km in 2015 to 5.0L/km in 2020. From the current characteristics of the automotive industry, if we rely solely on the optimization of design can not meet the requirements of low consumption and emission reduction in environmental protection, so from the development trend of the industry, the lightweight of automobile body has become the only way for future development.